Carol Gross, PhD

Cell and Tissue Biology
+1 415 476-1493
The Carol Gross Lab takes genetic, biochemical, and systems approaches to study regulatory mechanisms of E. coli stress responses, protein interactions in the bacterial transcription apparatus, and genome-wide control of gene expression.

Three bacterial DedA subfamilies with distinct functions and phylogenetic distribution.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology

Todor H, Herrera N, Gross C

Ceragenins and Antimicrobial Peptides Kill Bacteria through Distinct Mechanisms.


Mitchell G, Silvis MR, Talkington KC, Budzik JM, Dodd CE, Paluba JM, Oki EA, Trotta KL, Licht DJ, Jimenez-Morales D, Chou S, Savage PB, Gross CA, Marletta MA, Cox JS

The context of the ribosome binding site in mRNAs defines specificity of action of kasugamycin, an inhibitor of translation initiation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Zhang Y, Aleksashin NA, Klepacki D, Anderson C, Vázquez-Laslop N, Gross CA, Mankin AS

Morphological and Transcriptional Responses to CRISPRi Knockdown of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli.


Silvis MR, Rajendram M, Shi H, Osadnik H, Gray AN, Cesar S, Peters JM, Hearne CC, Kumar P, Todor H, Huang KC, Gross CA

AusTraits, a curated plant trait database for the Australian flora.

Scientific data

Falster D, Gallagher R, Wenk EH, Wright IJ, Indiarto D, Andrew SC, Baxter C, Lawson J, Allen S, Fuchs A, Monro A, Kar F, Adams MA, Ahrens CW, Alfonzetti M, Angevin T, Apgaua DMG, Arndt S, Atkin OK, Atkinson J, Auld T, Baker A, von Balthazar M, Bean A, Blackman CJ, Bloomfield K, Bowman DMJS, Bragg J, Brodribb TJ, Buckton G, Burrows G, Caldwell E, Camac J, Carpenter R, Catford JA, Cawthray GR, Cernusak LA, Chandler G, Chapman AR, Cheal D, Cheesman AW, Chen SC, Choat B, Clinton B, Clode PL, Coleman H, Cornwell WK, Cosgrove M, Crisp M, Cross E, Crous KY, Cunningham S, Curran T, Curtis E, Daws MI, DeGabriel JL, Denton MD, Dong N, Du P, Duan H, Duncan DH, Duncan RP, Duretto M, Dwyer JM, Edwards C, Esperon-Rodriguez M, Evans JR, Everingham SE, Farrell C, Firn J, Fonseca CR, French BJ, Frood D, Funk JL, Geange SR, Ghannoum O, Gleason SM, Gosper CR, Gray E, Groom PK, Grootemaat S, Gross C, Guerin G, Guja L, Hahs AK, Harrison MT, Hayes PE, Henery M, Hochuli D, Howell J, Huang G, Hughes L, Huisman J, Ilic J, Jagdish A, Jin D, Jordan G, Jurado E, Kanowski J, Kasel S, Kellermann J, Kenny B, Kohout M, Kooyman RM, Kotowska MM, Lai HR, Laliberté E, Lambers H, Lamont BB, Lanfear R, van Langevelde F, Laughlin DC, Laugier-Kitchener BA, Laurance S, Lehmann CER, Leigh A, Leishman MR, Lenz T, Lepschi B, Lewis JD, Lim F, Liu U, Lord J, Lusk CH, Macinnis-Ng C, McPherson H, Magallón S, Manea A, López-Martinez A, Mayfield M, McCarthy JK, Meers T, van der Merwe M, Metcalfe DJ, Milberg P, Mokany K, Moles AT, Moore BD, Moore N, Morgan JW, Morris W, Muir A, Munroe S, Nicholson Á, Nicolle D, Nicotra AB, Niinemets Ü, North T, O'Reilly-Nugent A, O'Sullivan OS, Oberle B, Onoda Y, Ooi MKJ, Osborne CP, Paczkowska G, Pekin B, Guilherme Pereira C, Pickering C, Pickup M, Pollock LJ, Poot P, Powell JR, Power SA, Prentice IC, Prior L, Prober SM, Read J, Reynolds V, Richards AE, Richardson B, Roderick ML, Rosell JA, Rossetto M, Rye B, Rymer PD, Sams MA, Sanson G, Sauquet H, Schmidt S, Schönenberger J, Schulze ED, Sendall K, Sinclair S, Smith B, Smith R, Soper F, Sparrow B, Standish RJ, Staples TL, Stephens R, Szota C, Taseski G, Tasker E, Thomas F, Tissue DT, Tjoelker MG, Tng DYP, de Tombeur F, Tomlinson K, Turner NC, Veneklaas EJ, Venn S, Vesk P, Vlasveld C, Vorontsova MS, Warren CA, Warwick N, Weerasinghe LK, Wells J, Westoby M, White M, Williams NSG, Wills J, Wilson PG, Yates C, Zanne AE, Zemunik G, Zieminska K

Cold Shock Response in Bacteria.

Annual review of genetics

Zhang Y, Gross CA

Chemical-genetic interrogation of RNA polymerase mutants reveals structure-function relationships and physiological tradeoffs.

Molecular cell

Shiver AL, Osadnik H, Peters JM, Mooney RA, Wu PI, Henry KK, Braberg H, Krogan NJ, Hu JC, Landick R, Huang KC, Gross CA

Computational pipeline for designing guide RNAs for mismatch-CRISPRi.

STAR Protocols

van Gestel J, Hawkins JS, Todor H, Gross CA

Expansion and re-classification of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) s factor family.

Nucleic acids research

Casas-Pastor D, Müller RR, Jaenicke S, Brinkrolf K, Becker A, Buttner MJ, Gross CA, Mascher T, Goesmann A, Fritz G

Rewiring the specificity of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Todor H, Osadnik H, Campbell EA, Myers KS, Li H, Donohue TJ, Gross CA

Genetic interaction mapping informs integrative structure determination of protein complexes.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Braberg H, Echeverria I, Bohn S, Cimermancic P, Shiver A, Alexander R, Xu J, Shales M, Dronamraju R, Jiang S, Dwivedi G, Bogdanoff D, Chaung KK, Hüttenhain R, Wang S, Mavor D, Pellarin R, Schneidman D, Bader JS, Fraser JS, Morris J, Haber JE, Strahl BD, Gross CA, Dai J, Boeke JD, Sali A, Krogan NJ

Bacterial CRISPR screens for gene function.

Current opinion in microbiology

Todor H, Silvis MR, Osadnik H, Gross CA

Mismatch-CRISPRi Reveals the Co-varying Expression-Fitness Relationships of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

Cell systems

Hawkins JS, Silvis MR, Koo BM, Peters JM, Osadnik H, Jost M, Hearne CC, Weissman JS, Todor H, Gross CA

Resistance to serine in Bacillus subtilis: identification of the serine transporter YbeC and of a metabolic network that links serine and threonine metabolism.

Environmental microbiology

Klewing A, Koo BM, Krüger L, Poehlein A, Reuß D, Daniel R, Gross CA, Stülke J

Titrating gene expression using libraries of systematically attenuated CRISPR guide RNAs.

Nature biotechnology

Jost M, Santos DA, Saunders RA, Horlbeck MA, Hawkins JS, Scaria SM, Norman TM, Hussmann JA, Liem CR, Gross CA, Weissman JS

Discovery of the extracytoplasmic function s factors.

Molecular microbiology

Lonetto MA, Donohue TJ, Gross CA, Buttner MJ

Topoisomerase IV can functionally replace all type 1A topoisomerases in Bacillus subtilis.

Nucleic acids research

Reuß DR, Faßhauer P, Mroch PJ, Ul-Haq I, Koo BM, Pöhlein A, Gross CA, Daniel R, Brantl S, Stülke J

Modeling of Protein Complex Architectures using Combinatorial Genetic Perturbations.

Biophysical Journal

Ignacia Echeverria, Hannes Braberg, Peter Cimermancic, Riccardo Pellarin, Dina Schneidman, Anthony Shiver, Carol Gross, Nevan Krogan, Andrej Sali

Enabling genetic analysis of diverse bacteria with Mobile-CRISPRi.

Nature microbiology

Peters JM, Koo BM, Patino R, Heussler GE, Hearne CC, Qu J, Inclan YF, Hawkins JS, Lu CHS, Silvis MR, Harden MM, Osadnik H, Peters JE, Engel JN, Dutton RJ, Grossman AD, Gross CA, Rosenberg OS

Structure and Function of the Transmembrane Domain of NsaS, an Antibiotic Sensing Histidine Kinase in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Bhate MP, Lemmin T, Kuenze G, Mensa B, Ganguly S, Peters JM, Schmidt N, Pelton JG, Gross CA, Meiler J, DeGrado WF

A Stress Response that Monitors and Regulates mRNA Structure Is Central to Cold Shock Adaptation.

Molecular cell

Zhang Y, Burkhardt DH, Rouskin S, Li GW, Weissman JS, Gross CA

Marine Mammal Microbiota Yields Novel Antibiotic with Potent Activity Against Clostridium difficile.

ACS infectious diseases

Ochoa JL, Sanchez LM, Koo BM, Doherty JS, Rajendram M, Huang KC, Gross CA, Linington RG

Ribosomal Architecture: Constraints Imposed by the Need for Self-Production.

Current biology : CB

Hussmann JA, Osadnik H, Gross CA

Global analysis of translation termination in E. coli.

PLoS genetics

Baggett NE, Zhang Y, Gross CA

Construction and Analysis of Two Genome-Scale Deletion Libraries for Bacillus subtilis.

Cell systems

Koo BM, Kritikos G, Farelli JD, Todor H, Tong K, Kimsey H, Wapinski I, Galardini M, Cabal A, Peters JM, Hachmann AB, Rudner DZ, Allen KN, Typas A, Gross CA

Operon mRNAs are organized into ORF-centric structures that predict translation efficiency.


Burkhardt DH, Rouskin S, Zhang Y, Li GW, Weissman JS, Gross CA

A Multiplexed Single-Cell CRISPR Screening Platform Enables Systematic Dissection of the Unfolded Protein Response.


Adamson B, Norman TM, Jost M, Cho MY, Nuñez JK, Chen Y, Villalta JE, Gilbert LA, Horlbeck MA, Hein MY, Pak RA, Gray AN, Gross CA, Dixit A, Parnas O, Regev A, Weissman JS

Identification of Two Phosphate Starvation-induced Wall Teichoic Acid Hydrolases Provides First Insights into the Degradative Pathway of a Key Bacterial Cell Wall Component.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Myers CL, Li FK, Koo BM, El-Halfawy OM, French S, Gross CA, Strynadka NC, Brown ED

Depletion of Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Phosphatases Disrupts Cell Envelope Biogenesis in Bacillus subtilis.

Journal of bacteriology

Zhao H, Sun Y, Peters JM, Gross CA, Garner EC, Helmann JD

A Chemical-Genomic Screen of Neglected Antibiotics Reveals Illicit Transport of Kasugamycin and Blasticidin S.

PLoS genetics

Shiver AL, Osadnik H, Kritikos G, Li B, Krogan N, Typas A, Gross CA

A Comprehensive, CRISPR-based Functional Analysis of Essential Genes in Bacteria.


Peters JM, Colavin A, Shi H, Czarny TL, Larson MH, Wong S, Hawkins JS, Lu CHS, Koo BM, Marta E, Shiver AL, Whitehead EH, Weissman JS, Brown ED, Qi LS, Huang KC, Gross CA

DksA regulates RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli through a network of interactions in the secondary channel that includes Sequence Insertion 1.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Parshin A, Shiver AL, Lee J, Ozerova M, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Gross CA, Borukhov S

Bacterial CRISPR: accomplishments and prospects.

Current opinion in microbiology

Peters JM, Silvis MR, Zhao D, Hawkins JS, Gross CA, Qi LS

High-throughput bacterial functional genomics in the sequencing era.

Current opinion in microbiology

Gray AN, Koo BM, Shiver AL, Peters JM, Osadnik H, Gross CA

Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division.


Gray AN, Egan AJ, Van't Veer IL, Verheul J, Colavin A, Koumoutsi A, Biboy J, Altelaar AF, Damen MJ, Huang KC, Simorre JP, Breukink E, den Blaauwen T, Typas A, Gross CA, Vollmer W

MurJ and a novel lipid II flippase are required for cell wall biogenesis in Bacillus subtilis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Meeske AJ, Sham LT, Kimsey H, Koo BM, Gross CA, Bernhardt TG, Rudner DZ

MicL, a new sE-dependent sRNA, combats envelope stress by repressing synthesis of Lpp, the major outer membrane lipoprotein.

Genes & development

Guo MS, Updegrove TB, Gogol EB, Shabalina SA, Gross CA, Storz G

Bacterial sigma factors: a historical, structural, and genomic perspective.

Annual review of microbiology

Feklístov A, Sharon BD, Darst SA, Gross CA

Stress-induced remodeling of the bacterial proteome.

Current biology : CB

Guo MS, Gross CA

A pause sequence enriched at translation start sites drives transcription dynamics in vivo.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Larson MH, Mooney RA, Peters JM, Windgassen T, Nayak D, Gross CA, Block SM, Greenleaf WJ, Landick R, Weissman JS

Promoter melting by an alternative s, one base at a time.

Nature structural & molecular biology

Darst SA, Feklistov A, Gross CA

Heat shock transcription factor s32 co-opts the signal recognition particle to regulate protein homeostasis in E. coli.

PLoS biology

Lim B, Miyazaki R, Neher S, Siegele DA, Ito K, Walter P, Akiyama Y, Yura T, Gross CA

Design of orthogonal genetic switches based on a crosstalk map of ss, anti-ss, and promoters.

Molecular systems biology

Rhodius VA, Segall-Shapiro TH, Sharon BD, Ghodasara A, Orlova E, Tabakh H, Burkhardt DH, Clancy K, Peterson TC, Gross CA, Voigt CA

Dual molecular signals mediate the bacterial response to outer-membrane stress.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Lima S, Guo MS, Chaba R, Gross CA, Sauer RT

Covalent intermediate in the catalytic mechanism of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine methyl synthase RlmN trapped by mutagenesis.

Journal of the American Chemical Society

McCusker KP, Medzihradszky KF, Shiver AL, Nichols RJ, Yan F, Maltby DA, Gross CA, Fujimori DG

The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus CpxA.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Kwon E, Kim DY, Ngo TD, Gross CA, Gross JD, Kim KK

From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology.

Nature reviews. Microbiology

Typas A, Banzhaf M, Gross CA, Vollmer W

Selective ribosome profiling reveals the cotranslational chaperone action of trigger factor in vivo.


Oh E, Becker AH, Sandikci A, Huber D, Chaba R, Gloge F, Nichols RJ, Typas A, Gross CA, Kramer G, Weissman JS, Bukau B

Predicting the strength of UP-elements and full-length E. coli sE promoters.

Nucleic acids research

Rhodius VA, Mutalik VK, Gross CA

Unexpected stress-reducing effect of PhaP, a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granule-associated protein, in Escherichia coli.

Applied and environmental microbiology

de Almeida A, Catone MV, Rhodius VA, Gross CA, Pettinari MJ

Small RNAs endow a transcriptional activator with essential repressor functions for single-tier control of a global stress regulon.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gogol EB, Rhodius VA, Papenfort K, Vogel J, Gross CA

Signal integration by DegS and RseB governs the σ E-mediated envelope stress response in Escherichia coli.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Chaba R, Alba BM, Guo MS, Sohn J, Ahuja N, Sauer RT, Gross CA

Using DNA microarrays to assay part function.

Methods in enzymology

Rhodius VA, Gross CA

Phenotypic landscape of a bacterial cell.


Nichols RJ, Sen S, Choo YJ, Beltrao P, Zietek M, Chaba R, Lee S, Kazmierczak KM, Lee KJ, Wong A, Shales M, Lovett S, Winkler ME, Krogan NJ, Typas A, Gross CA

Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer-membrane proteins.


Typas A, Banzhaf M, van den Berg van Saparoea B, Verheul J, Biboy J, Nichols RJ, Zietek M, Beilharz K, Kannenberg K, von Rechenberg M, Breukink E, den Blaauwen T, Gross CA, Vollmer W

The crystal structure Escherichia coli Spy.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

Kwon E, Kim DY, Gross CA, Gross JD, Kim KK

Reduced capacity of alternative sigmas to melt promoters ensures stringent promoter recognition.

Genes & development

Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Nonaka G, deHaseth PL, Gross CA

Promoter strength properties of the complete sigma E regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica.

Journal of bacteriology

Mutalik VK, Nonaka G, Ades SE, Rhodius VA, Gross CA

Convergence of molecular, modeling, and systems approaches for an understanding of the Escherichia coli heat shock response.

Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR

Guisbert E, Yura T, Rhodius VA, Gross CA

High-throughput, quantitative analyses of genetic interactions in E. coli.

Nature methods

Typas A, Nichols RJ, Siegele DA, Shales M, Collins SR, Lim B, Braberg H, Yamamoto N, Takeuchi R, Wanner BL, Mori H, Weissman JS, Krogan NJ, Gross CA

An extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor and anti-sigma factor control carotenoid biosynthesis in Azospirillum brasilense.

Microbiology (Reading, England)

Thirunavukkarasu N, Mishra MN, Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J, Gross CA, Tripathi AK

Analysis of sigma32 mutants defective in chaperone-mediated feedback control reveals unexpected complexity of the heat shock response.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Yura T, Guisbert E, Poritz M, Lu CZ, Campbell E, Gross CA

Regulation and Function of the Envelope Stress Response Controlled by sE.

Carol A. Gross, Virgil A. Rhodius, Irina L. Grigorova

Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

PLoS computational biology

Kurata H, El-Samad H, Iwasaki R, Ohtake H, Doyle JC, Grigorova I, Gross CA, Khammash M

Insights into transcriptional regulation and sigma competition from an equilibrium model of RNA polymerase binding to DNA.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Grigorova IL, Phleger NJ, Mutalik VK, Gross CA

Conserved and variable functions of the sigmaE stress response in related genomes.

PLoS biology

Rhodius VA, Suh WC, Nonaka G, West J, Gross CA

Characterization of six lipoproteins in the sigmaE regulon.

Journal of bacteriology

Onufryk C, Crouch ML, Fang FC, Gross CA

An open letter to Elias Zerhouni.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Altman S, Bassler BL, Beckwith J, Belfort M, Berg HC, Bloom B, Brenchley JE, Campbell A, Collier RJ, Connell N, Cozzarelli NR, Craig NL, Darst S, Ebright RH, Elledge SJ, Falkow S, Galan JE, Gottesman M, Gourse R, Grindley ND, Gross CA, Grossman A, Hochschild A, Howe M, Hurwitz J, Isberg RR, Kaplan S, Kornberg A, Kustu SG, Landick RC, Landy A, Levy SB, Losick R, Long SR, Maloy SR, Mekalanos JJ, Neidhardt FC, Pace NR, Ptashne M, Roberts JW, Roth JR, Rothman-Denes LB, Salyers A, Schaechter M, Shapiro L, Silhavy TJ, Simon MI, Walker G, Yanofsky C, Zinder N

Surviving heat shock: control strategies for robustness and performance.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

El-Samad H, Kurata H, Doyle JC, Gross CA, Khammash M

Altering the interaction between sigma70 and RNA polymerase generates complexes with distinct transcription-elongation properties.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Berghöfer-Hochheimer Y, Lu CZ, Gross CA

Module-Based Analysis of Robustness Tradeoffs in the Heat Shock Response System.

PLoS computational biology

Hiroyuki Kurata, Hana El-Samad, Rei Iwasaki, Hisao Ohtake, John C Doyle, Irina Grigorova, Carol A. Gross, Mustafa Khammash

A chaperone network controls the heat shock response in E. coli.

Genes & development

Guisbert E, Herman C, Lu CZ, Gross CA

A hydrophobic patch on the flap-tip helix of E.coli RNA polymerase mediates sigma(70) region 4 function.

Journal of molecular biology

Geszvain K, Gruber TM, Mooney RA, Gross CA, Landick R

Minimal machinery of RNA polymerase holoenzyme sufficient for promoter melting.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA

Ira Herskowitz (1946–2003).


Franklin W Stahl, Carol A Gross

Cell regulation.

Current opinion in microbiology

Carol Gross, Andrée Lazdunski

Crystal structure of Escherichia coli sigmaE with the cytoplasmic domain of its anti-sigma RseA.

Molecular cell

Campbell EA, Tupy JL, Gruber TM, Wang S, Sharp MM, Gross CA, Darst SA

Directed evolution of substrate-optimized GroEL/S chaperonins.


Wang JD, Herman C, Tipton KA, Gross CA, Weissman JS

Identification of the binding sites of regulatory proteins in bacterial genomes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Li H, Rhodius V, Gross C, Siggia ED

Views of transcription initiation.


Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA

Impact of genomic technologies on studies of bacterial gene expression.

Annual review of microbiology

Rhodius V, Van Dyk TK, Gross C, LaRossa RA

Binding of the initiation factor sigma(70) to core RNA polymerase is a multistep process.

Molecular cell

Gruber TM, Markov D, Sharp MM, Young BA, Lu CZ, Zhong HJ, Artsimovitch I, Geszvain KM, Arthur TM, Burgess RR, Landick R, Severinov K, Gross CA

A coiled-coil from the RNA polymerase beta' subunit allosterically induces selective nontemplate strand binding by sigma(70).


Young BA, Anthony LC, Gruber TM, Arthur TM, Heyduk E, Lu CZ, Sharp MM, Heyduk T, Burgess RR, Gross CA

The SurA periplasmic PPIase lacking its parvulin domains functions in vivo and has chaperone activity.

The EMBO journal

Behrens S, Maier R, de Cock H, Schmid FX, Gross CA

The interface of sigma with core RNA polymerase is extensive, conserved, and functionally specialized.

Genes & development

Sharp MM, Chan CL, Lu CZ, Marr MT, Nechaev S, Merritt EW, Severinov K, Roberts JW, Gross CA

Interaction of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone, DnaK, with its cochaperone DnaJ.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Suh WC, Burkholder WF, Lu CZ, Zhao X, Gottesman ME, Gross CA

The functional and regulatory roles of sigma factors in transcription.

Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

Gross CA, Chan C, Dombroski A, Gruber T, Sharp M, Tupy J, Young B

SigmaE is an essential sigma factor in Escherichia coli.

Journal of bacteriology

De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA

Sigma domain structure: one down, one to go.

Structure (London, England : 1993)

Chan CL, Lonetto MA, Gross CA

The sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase senses promoter spacing.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Dombroski AJ, Johnson BD, Lonetto M, Gross CA

Involvement of the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone team in protein secretion in Escherichia coli.

Journal of bacteriology

Wild J, Rossmeissl P, Walter WA, Gross CA

Identifying interacting regions in the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

Journal of molecular biology

Tavormina PL, Reznikoff WS, Gross CA

A structure/function analysis of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

Gross CA, Chan CL, Lonetto MA

Analysis of three DnaK mutant proteins suggests that progression through the ATPase cycle requires conformational changes.

The Journal of biological chemistry

Kamath-Loeb AS, Lu CZ, Suh WC, Lonetto MA, Gross CA

rpoE, the gene encoding the second heat-shock sigma factor, sigma E, in Escherichia coli.

The EMBO journal

Rouvière PE, De Las Peñas A, Mecsas J, Lu CZ, Rudd KE, Gross CA

Amino-terminal amino acids modulate sigma-factor DNA-binding activity.

Genes & development

Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA

The role of the sigma subunit in promoter recognition by RNA polymerase.

Cellular & molecular biology research

Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA

DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE are required for flagellum synthesis in Escherichia coli.

Journal of bacteriology

Shi W, Zhou Y, Wild J, Adler J, Gross CA

Partial loss of function mutations in DnaK, the Escherichia coli homologue of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins, affect highly conserved amino acids implicated in ATP binding and hydrolysis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Wild J, Kamath-Loeb A, Ziegelhoffer E, Lonetto M, Kawasaki Y, Gross CA

DnaK and DnaJ heat shock proteins participate in protein export in Escherichia coli.

Genes & development

Wild J, Altman E, Yura T, Gross CA

The sigma 70 family: sequence conservation and evolutionary relationships.

Journal of bacteriology

Lonetto M, Gribskov M, Gross CA

Physiological effects of the fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase ts8 mutation on stable RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli.

Journal of bacteriology

Singer M, Walter WA, Cali BM, Rouviere P, Liebke HH, Gourse RL, Gross CA

Development of RNA polymerase-promoter contacts during open complex formation.

Journal of molecular biology

Mecsas J, Cowing DW, Gross CA

A collection of strains containing genetically linked alternating antibiotic resistance elements for genetic mapping of Escherichia coli.

Microbiological reviews

Singer M, Baker TA, Schnitzler G, Deischel SM, Goel M, Dove W, Jaacks KJ, Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA

A collection of strains containing genetically linked alternating antibiotic resistance elements for genetic mapping of Escherichia coli.

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

M Singer, T A Baker, G Schnitzler, S M Deischel, M Goel, W Dove, K J Jaacks, A D Grossman, J W Erickson, C A Gross

Escherichia coli heat shock gene mutants are defective in proteolysis.

Genes & development

Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA

Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32.

Journal of bacteriology

Zhou YN, Kusukawa N, Erickson JW, Gross CA, Yura T

Regulation of the promoters and transcripts of rpoH, the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory gene.

Genes & development

Erickson JW, Vaughn V, Walter WA, Neidhardt FC, Gross CA

Sigma 32 synthesis can regulate the synthesis of heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli.

Genes & development

Grossman AD, Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA

Regulation of the Heat-Shock Response in Escherichia coli.

New Frontiers in the Study of Gene Functions

Carol Gross, Deborah Cowing, James Erickson, Alan Grossman, David Straus, William Walter, Yan-Ning Zhou

Stringent response in Escherichia coli induces expression of heat shock proteins.

Journal of molecular biology

Grossman AD, Taylor WE, Burton ZF, Burgess RR, Gross CA

Consensus sequence for Escherichia coli heat shock gene promoters.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cowing DW, Bardwell JC, Craig EA, Woolford C, Hendrix RW, Gross CA

The regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria.

Annual review of genetics

Reznikoff WS, Siegele DA, Cowing DW, Gross CA

A gene regulating the heat shock response in Escherichia coli also affects proteolysis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Baker TA, Grossman AD, Gross CA

The nucleotide sequence of the cloned rpoD gene for the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from E coli K12.

Nucleic acids research

Burton Z, Burgess RR, Lin J, Moore D, Holder S, Gross CA

Isolation and characterization of transducing phage coding for sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gross CA, Blattner FR, Taylor WE, Lowe PA, Burgess RR

Altered chemical properties in three mutants of E. coli RNA polymerase sigma subunit.

Molecular & general genetics : MGG

Burgess RR, Gross CA, Walter W, Lowe PA

Non-specific DNA binding of genome regulating proteins as a biological control mechanism: I. The lac operon: equilibrium aspects.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

von Hippel PH, Revzin A, Gross CA, Wang AC